agriculture

APPLY-GLOBAL FOOD SECURITY SYMPOSIUM 2017 – NEXT GENERATION DELEGATION

global-food-security-symposium-2017

Deadline is November 4 2016.

The Chicago Council on Global Affairs is now accepting applications for our Next Generation Delegation from students to participate in the Global Food Security Symposium 2017. The symposium will be held on March 29-30, 2017, in Washington, DC.

The 2017 symposium will offer key insights on how to leverage past successes, and invigorate future efforts, amidst an evolving global landscape. This unique window of opportunity is a chance to help shape the next decade of leadership on global food security.

Next Generation Delegates will have the opportunity to:

  • interact with symposium speakers and senior attendees in private forum;
  • network with other outstanding students planning careers in global food, agriculture, and nutrition sectors;
  • connect with key stakeholders from the public, private, and NGO sectors in private meetings; and
  • select delegates may also participate in symposium side events, panel discussions, or video interviews.

Rapporteurs will play an important role by attending working group “Solution Sessions” in Washington, DC, and capturing key themes and outcomes discussed at private working group sessions. The aim of this position is to allow students to participate in the working groups and the symposium and to ensure that the proceedings and outcomes are clearly recorded and shared with participants for follow-up action. The Solution Sessions will be held on March 29, and rapporteurs will also be invited to the symposium on March 30.

Candidate Responsibilities

Delegates are expected to:

  • Attend all symposium-related events in Washington, DC, on March 29-30, 2017. The Council will cover round trip airfare, accommodations, and meal expenses.
  • Prepare a commentary piece for the Global Food for Thought blog on food security, shocks to the global food system, and entrepreneurship and innovation, as it relates to their area of research focus and career trajectory.
  • Support social media outreach, which includes engaging your respective universities and disseminating information about the symposium, its featured report and the live stream to your networks.
  • Contribute to and participate in the event’s social media plans, and responsibilities as required.
  • Participate in a private post-event debriefing session and complete an online evaluation of the event.

Candidate Criteria:

Students must be at the graduate or advanced undergraduate (third or fourth year) level studying agricultural development, social entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship, or other food security related disciplines. Students must plan to enter the agriculture and food sector upon graduation. International students and students studying at universities outside of the United States are strongly encouraged to apply.

To Apply

Interested applicants should complete this application form , providing the following:

  • Curriculum Vitae
  • Two professional or academic references
  • A letter of recommendation from a professor or employer
  • A brief essay (maximum 500 words) on one of the following topics as it relates to their area of study: innovation and technology in the global food system, global food security and global stability, sustainable and equitable development of food systems.

The deadline for applications is November 4, 2016. Please note incomplete applications will not be considered. If you have in questions about the Next Generation Delegation, please contact nextgendelegation@thechicagocouncil.org.

For More Information visit – https://www.thechicagocouncil.org/basic-page/global-food-security-symposium-2017-next-generation-delegation

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THE ROAD TO 2030: ERADICATING POVERTY AND ACHIEVING SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION .


adeI wrote this article for the 2016 International Youth Day and it was first published on Rural Reporter’s website

Mallam Audu works out of the agro shop smiling. He has just purchased all the input for this season’s planting and also got his 30 minutes advisory session from the agro dealer. Two thousand kilometers away, Mr Obi takes delivery of fresh tubers of yams; two bunches of plantain and a basket of tomatoes just 20 minutes after ordering from a mobile app.  The roads leading to Thai community are now well paved and the first textile factory is up and running with quality cotton supplied by farmers in the community. Aba is now home of quality textile with exports to the other regions of Africa. You might wonder, when did all these happen? The year is 2030.

Of course many will say, “These are just wishful thinking and dreams”. They are however very achievable. The role young people in Nigeria, and indeed Sub Sahara Africa, have to play to make all the above a reality cannot be over-emphasised. Little wonder then that this year’s International Youth Day focuses on three fundamental elements –eradicating poverty, achieving sustainable production and consumption by the year 2030. While a whole lot goes into achieving these, agriculture and agribusiness plays a major role. It is also one of the few sectors that can conveniently engage young people solving issues related to hunger, mal-nutrition, unemployment and ultimately food security.

THE ROAD TO 2030

Much is needed to achieve this goal it is however achievable. This article highlight 3 kick off steps needed to achieve this by 2030. It is important to note though that actions are required from now to make this reality To start with, an all inclusive stakeholder consultation is needed. This consultation will involve both public and private sector in agriculture, the farmers, youths and women, donor organizations ,research institutes, health care organization and other organizations or agency that play a role in the agriculture value chain to mention a few. The purpose of this consultation will be to have a holistic need assessment of what is needed to improve and transform agriculture. It will also be an avenue to priotize key focus areas and synergize across board on steps to take to achieve the set goal.

One of the fundamental outcomes expected from this consultation should be a clearly defined value chain transformation road map for each key commodities and agricultural services. A consultation usually ends with a long list of needs to be address and responsibilities to be shared. Due diligence needs to be done to this to ensure every one knows the role they have to play and in what areas of the sector.

It is on the basis of these that required increased investment need to be provided. The Feed Africa Report by the African Development Bank clearly stated that Africa requires US$315bn- US$400bn to realize the Sustainable Development Goals on poverty and ending hunger. It is thus imperative that consistent and purposeful effort be made to provide funding to transforming agriculture and it value chain. This should start with increased allocation of budget to agriculture and related sectors by the governments. It is also important that the government allows the private sector handle the job of running agribusiness while they focus on issues like regulation, health care, research, infrastructure to mention but a few.

Young people are dynamic and energetic. They are also not blinded to the challenges and pressures of the times we live in and as such might not be quickly drawn to engaging in agriculture as they believe that a white collar career in other sectors will provide a better life for them. Of course not every one will be in the agriculture sector. It is however important to note that more than ever before the sector needs intelligent, hardworking, smart and entrepreneurial young men and women to engage in the various aspect of the value chain. It is thus important that changing young people’s perception toward agriculture be given attention.

To succeed in this, a couple of things need to be done

  • Improving the lifestyle of existing smallholders to reflect success by helping them do agribusiness rather than just farming
  • Promoting the success of young people who are doing well in agribusiness
  • Parents and educational institutions promoting from an early age importance of growing ones food through backyard farming and school gardening
  • A joint collaboration by the public and private sector to fund scholarships to study agriculture and to provide grants and loans to young people with ideas in agriculture and agribusiness These kick off steps needs intentional efforts from all involved.

There is no folding of hands and waiting to be spoon fed. Youth, need to get involved in shaping the future they want for themselves. Join in policy discussion, partner with others in areas of interest in agriculture and agribusiness, be ready to learn and get trained if needs be. Display qualities of hard work, honesty and endurance to achieve set goals. If opportune to get funding please use wisely for intended purpose.

 

2030 is not far off from us. As a young person are you prepared to take needed steps to achieve these goals. We all should take sometime to think about this and see areas we can contribute. A little bit of effort will collectively yield good results. . – See more at: http://ruralreporters.com/the-road-to-2030-eradicating-poverty-and-achieving-sustainable-production-and-consumption/ | Rural Reporters

WHAT CAN AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY DO FOR A DEVELOPING ECONOMY?

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As a graduate of biotechnology and genetics I am poised to write to authorities in the agriculture sector, policy makers, sister and supporting Ministries departments and Agencies, opinion leaders, well spirited individuals, private sector and students to describe the usefulness and applications of this novel field of agricultural biotechnology and show how it can contribute to the agriculture sector as well as the economy of a developing country like Nigeria. I think these authorities will be interested to know the achievements of this field, the potential estimated market volume, the demand from agriculture and the role of Agricultural biotechnology in meeting this demand, and its impact on National development. Although some in-depth studies have been performed on this topic and literature documented, it is pertinent that I bring some salient features to light. Using information available from other findings, this write up is aimed at bringing the science of Agricultural biotechnology to the attention of busy stakeholders in the agriculture sector and other related sectors in the country and encourage them to understand the potentials that lie fallow in this novel science.

Briefly, agricultural biotechnology is the manipulation of Crops and Animals or their parts for the production of value added goods and services for man use.

APPLICATIONS/ ACHIEVEMENTS OF AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY

Ever since the dawn of time, man kind has been in constant practice  of agriculture as the most fundamental means to satisfy the basic needs of food, clothing, and shelter. This need therefore calls for a proper understanding of the underlying principles of agriculture so as to exploit them for maximum productivity. Thus this field has been subjected to series of reassessment of its practices and innovations not only to achieve its immediate benefits but to carter for the rapidly growing population.

In the early years of agriculture, from 10th century BC man started exploiting crops and livestock using informal and crude practices which involve the reliance on the biological methods of pest and weed control, shifting cultivation, bush fallowing etc. down to the formal era of inputs such as herbicides, pesticides, fertilizers, and to the classical breeding era of hybridization, evaluation, and selection. These practices though helpful had shortcomings in terms of inadequate food production to meet the demands of the growing population and destruction of the natural ecosystem and biodiversity. In the quest to carter for these shortcomings came the birth of the science I describe as the best of the epoch, a science with impetus for more agriculture research and that which has all the potentials to unlock the mechanisms of living machines “Recombinant genetics and biotechnology”

A few of its applications and achievements are discussed below;

 Insect resistant crops: These crops have been engineered to express a self-defense for insect pest so as to enhance productivity and reduce crop losses for e.g. Bt cotton (Bacillus thuringienesis). This cotton has DNA (genetic material) from the soil microbe Bacillus thuringienesis incorporated into its genome (Entire genetic make up) which enables it to express resistance for insect pest. This cotton was adopted by Indian farmers and it increased their average yield by 70% between 2001 and 2008 and half of this increase is attributed to the Bt cotton adopted by Indian farmers (James 2009), this also suggest why India is presently the highest exporter of cotton. A decrease in cotton boll insecticide use by 56% between 1998 and 2006, which is cost saving for 6million Indian farmers who grew Bt cotton in 2009 (James 2009). In 2009, 7million Chinese farmers also grew Bt cotton and yield was increased by 10% and insecticide use decreased by 60% (James 2009) other engineered insect resistant crops include Bt corn, rice, etc.

 Herbicide tolerant crops:  These are crops that have been engineered so that their growth and development is not significantly affected by herbicides used on the weeds growing around them. This will enhance crop yield, reduce wastage, reduce cost and as well help in maintaining biodiversity. Crops such as maize, wheat, sugar cane, rice, onions etc. have been genetically modified to express this trait.

 Protein enhanced sweet potatoes: Sweet potatoes is known for its carbohydrate rich content, recently scientist have developed a protein rich sweet potatoes by isolating a gene AmA1 rich in lysine from the amaranth plant and incorporating it into the genome of sweet potatoes and it is well expressed. This protein AmA1 is not known to be an allergen.

 Cheese Making: Because of the insufficiency in rennet production from animals, and other natural sources, rennet which is an enzyme which produces chymosin which curdles milk in cheese production is now been mass produced by isolating the gene for rennet production from animal stomach and insert them into certain bacteria, fungi to make them produce chymosin during fermentation. The genetically modified microorganism is killed after fermentation and chymosin is removed from the fermentation broth so that the fermentation produced chymosin does not contain any GM component or ingredient.

ESTIMATED MARKET VOLUME

Due to empirical facts that biotechnology products are safe to use, and the promise biotechnology holds to bring more innovation to agriculture; producing more food to meet the growing demand while maintaining the biodiversity. The market potential is estimated with respect to the growing population, availability and acceptability of products. Presently some biotechnology products have been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration and are on shelves, they experience a high demand and have not been reported to have any negative effect on consumers. It is anticipated that as more products receive approval of regulatory bodies and come into the market in the near future so, will the market demand increase, hence its volume. Recently Genetically Modified Salmon was approved in the US and is already being consumed by many people.

Why have some countries accepted GMO? Why the misconceptions? Is this technology truly beneficial and how? The next part of this article will tell us

Written by Opuah Abiekwen(abeikwen@yahoo.com) Graduate of Biotechnology and Genetics, University of Calabar

GROWERS: Know your Nozzles.

More and more growers or farmers are beginning to adopt the use of Crop Protection Products (CPP) in their farming operations. These could include herbicides, insecticides, fungicides or even liquid fertilizers. To effectively use these farmers usually needs to have spraying equipment which could be a knapsack, a mechanized sprayer and for large farms boom sprayers attached to a tractor.

Sprayers have various parts and this I will discuss in another blog post. However, from my experience with farmers I have discovered that many a times the wrong kind of nozzle is used per time. What do I mean, for example a farmer is spraying an insecticide and he uses a nozzle fit for an herbicide. Let’s take a short ride to know a bit more about nozzle.  I really do hope this is helpful to one or two of my readers, if possible all of you.

ARE NOZZLES EVEN IMPORTANT?

Nozzles are critical in spraying. It is helps to control spray of liquid be it fertilizer or pesticides. It aids in atomization. Atomization involves the breakup of spray liquid into droplets. A nozzle also ensures that the spray liquid is dispersed in a specific pattern. Thus nozzles play a very important role in spray.

NOZZLE CLASSIFICATION

  1. Hydraulic : This basically uses water pressure as a means of transmission
  2. Gaseous : This uses air pressure
  3. Centrifugal : This uses gravitational pull
  4. Electrical : Uses electricity

NOZZLE TYPES

Flat Fan Nozzles

flat fanThis is the appropriate nose for herbicides. It usually found on tractors and has medium droplet size. It’s not fit for knapsacks.

 

 

 

 

Flood Jet Nozzle

flood jetThis kind of nozzle is appropriate for a knapsack. It releases droplet in big size. The flood jet nozzle is very fitting for fertilizer application.

 

 

 

Full Cone Nozzle

full coneThis nozzle type should be used for fungicide and insecticide. It provides fine droplet when spraying

 

 

 

 

 

Even Flat Fan Nozzle

This is very similar to the flat fan nozzle and is fitting for herbicide spray. It is suitable for a knapsack.

even flat fan

Hollow Cone Nozzle

hollow coneThis is also used for insecticide and fungicide applications. It has a hallow spray pattern

 

 

 

 

The next time you spray be sure to you the right nozzle. It goes a long way to ensure you efficiently use your CPP or fertilizer as the case may be.

Opportunity! Masters Research Grants – Fish Trade Program in Africa

The shores of Shiroro dam in Niger State Nigeria is a fishery hub

The shores of Shiroro dam in Niger State Nigeria is a fishery hub

The WorldFish Center with the funding from the European Commission (EC) has joined efforts with AU-IBAR and NEPAD Planning and Coordinating Agency (NPCA), to implement a programme called “Improving Food Security and Reducing Poverty through Intra-regional Fish Trade in Sub-Saharan Africa” (also referred to as Fish Trade Program). The Fish Trade Program aims to improve food and nutritional security and reduce poverty in sub-Saharan Africa by enhancing the capacities of regional and pan-African organizations to support their member states to better integrate intra-regional fish trade into their development and food security policy agendas. The Program works within the four corridors in Africa (Western, Southern, Eastern and Central) aims to deliver on the following results:

  • Generate information on the structure, products and value of intra-regional fish trade in food security in Sub Saharan Africa and make it available to stakeholders.
  • Come up with a set of recommendations on policies, certification procedures, standards and regulations, and get them well embedded in national and regional fisheries, agricultural, trade and food security policy frameworks in sub-Saharan Africa.
  • Enhance the capacities for trade amongst private sector associations, in particular of women fish processors and traders and aquaculture producers, to make better use of expanding trade opportunities through competitive small and medium scale enterprises; and
  • Facilitate adoption and implementation of appropriate policies, certification procedures, standards and regulations by key stakeholders participating in intra-regional trade in the four trade corridors.

This program focuses on four main African trade corridors, in Western, Southern, Eastern and Central Africa. It is focused in three main areas namely to:

  • Strengthen the evidence base for coherent policy development at national and regional levels,
  • Support the formulation and implementation of appropriate policies, standards and regulatory frameworks to promote intra-regional fish trade, and
  • Strengthen the capacity of private sector associations, in particular of women fish traders, to enhance the competitiveness of small- and medium-scale enterprises engaged in this trade.

The Program responds to the potential of Africa’s intra-regional fish trade in addressing the region’s food and nutrition insecurity, as well as poverty reduction through wealth creation which has been overlooked and neglected in national and regional policy. As a result, intra-regional fish trade has largely remained informal, with substantial volumes traded by artisanal and small – medium enterprises, mostly by women.

African Union and its Regional Economic Communities (RECs) have therefore prioritized strengthening of regional trade and have identified fish and fish products as key commodities for investment and policy support. This is evidenced in the African Union Policy Framework and Reform Strategy for Fisheries and Aquaculture document which clearly aims to “Promote responsible and equitable fish trade and marketing by significantly harnessing the benefits of Africa’s fisheries and aquaculture endowments through accelerated trade and marketing”.

Nature of Research Grant

This research grant forms part of the mentorship program which aims at building the capacities of the youth and young professionals in Africa through active engagement in the program implementation process. This is based on the assumption that there exists huge opportunity to generate volumes of data on fish trade in Africa, and the project offers opportunity to even generate more information which can be capitalized on to inform national and regional policies at the same time bring forth academic excellence to a number of individuals who can help in contributing to the development of Africa at large if their capacities are built.

Eligibility

It is expected that the candidates should be from AU Member states and should have completed their course work in any of the following Universities which are participating in the implementation of the Fish Trade project;

  1. University of Abidjan, Ivory Coast
  2. University of Dakar, Senegal
  3. University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
  4. University of Douala, Cameroun
  5. University of Ghana, Ghana
  6. University of Ibadan, Nigeria
  7. Lilongwe University of Agriculture & Natural Resources, Malawi
  8. National University of Rwanda Other Universities within the regions will also be considered but priority will be given to the Universities above

The students should be pursuing masters or have proven background in the following programs; Economics, Fisheries Economics, Agriculture Economics, International Trade and other related programs.

The candidate should be willing to undertake the study in the southern corridor and parts of eastern corridor, such as Rwanda at the minimum possible cost.

Selection Criteria

The selection of candidates shall be done through a rigorous exercise, consisting of independent reviewers. The basis of selection shall be made on academic merit obtained at Masters Coursework and evaluation of content of concept note.

How To Apply

The candidates must develop a five paged concept note together with their supervisors and must have an endorsement letter from their supervisors and should include the followingkey sections;

  • Indicate the country in which the study will be undertaken
  • indicate the university of study, degree program being undertaken and indicative courses so far studied under this program
  • Clearly indicate what they are going to do and how they are going to do it (proposed methodology)
  • Linkage of academic study to overall fish trade project
  • How their project will contribute towards achievement of their national developmental goals
  • How they are going to collect data and analyze their data to ensure that the work is publishable and have an academic tone
  • Expected Results
  • An indicative budget for the whole study and workplan

Candidates shall be requested to attach transcripts from their masters course work and a letter of consent from supervisory committee.

The applications shall be addressed to

NEPAD Regional Fish Node

Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources

Box 219

Lilongwe

Malawi

Email: fishnode@yahoo.com with copies to: lissubby@gmail.com ; ekaunda@yahoo.com ;

Cell numbers; +265999378275 and +265 999 510 796

To reach not later than 4th September 2015

Original Post Here

Sign Up ForThe August Agric-Tour To Songhai Farms

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“Travel while you are young and able. Don’t worry about the money, just make it work. Experience is far more valuable than money will ever be”

Are you a farmer or an intending agriculturist? Do you have a farm and desire to upscale it to meet the current dynamics of agribusiness? Here is an opportunity to learn from one of the best in Africa.

Hadur Travel and Tour a tourism company with over 10 years experience in showcasing to people the best in agricultural practice and business from all over the world invites you to register for her next 5-day agric-tour to the Songhai Centre (Farm) located in Porto-Novo, Republic of Benin. The tour will commence from 2nd August to 6th August 2015.

Songhai Centre is a leader in sustainable agriculture. The farm practices agriculture and agribusiness in an environmentally friendly manner with over 900 hectares of farm land across the Benin. It uses modern methods of farming with diversified production. Activities on the farm range from Crop Production, Livestock farming, fish farming, and Renewable energy, Agro processing and Marketing.

GETTING ON BOARD

Tour Date: 2-6 August 2014

Requirements and Registration:

1.Download the attached SONGHAI STUDY FORM
2. Fill and scan along with the data page of your international passport send to us or submit in person to our office.
3. Confirm your room choice and we will send you a revised quote with your areas of interest indicated on your form
4. Obtain your yellow card if you don’t have one
5. Pay your tour fee
6. Pack your bags and get ready for the travel and learning experience of a life time.
Deadline is 22nd July 2015
PRICE: Participants can choose from the following options

1. ₦70,000 3 people sharing in a dormitory room
2. ₦74,000 1 person in a room with fan
3. ₦98,500 1 person in a room with AC
4. N92,000 (Per head) in double room with TV no Internet and no hot water – COUPLES SPECIAL PRICE
5. N102,000 (Per head) VIP room with internet, TV, hot and cold water, fridge etc- COUPLES SPECIAL PRICE

Note that the fee covers return journey by executive air conditioned bus, accommodation is provided on the farm in the best single room with air condition.(VIP room for couple, single room with fan also available and cheaper double rooms for those who wish to share). For meals these 5 will be provided – dinner on arrival, 3 lunches & breakfast on departure at the European restaurant on the farm, trip to Cotonou for leisure.

PAYMENT MODE:

All payment should be made to the details below
Name: Hadur travel & tours limited
Acct no:1013482922
Bank: Zenith bank plc

For further details and inquiry call Text or call CEO on 08033134108 or Bukky on 08086762144, you will get response in no time.

Visit: http://www.smarttravelsuperfan.com/?p=745 for more information and testimonials from past participants

OFFICE ADDRESS

CEO Hadur travel and tours Ltd
Suite 22 Block B G/floor
Alausa Shopping Mall , Alausa,
Ikeja ,Lagos, Nigeria.
Phone : 234-8033134108,08099350378,
http://www.smarttravelsuperfan.com
http://www.facebook.com/hadurtravels

Youth: Six Things You Should Know about Agro Dealership

Fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, animal care medicines and many others are constantly needed in the farming sector. Not only do farmers need this crop protection products they also need inputs that are of quality and will meet their needs. And this indeed opens quiet a big door of opportunity for youth.

Alhaji Idris Musa, an agro-dealer representative in Karshi , FCT Nigeria

Alhaji Idris Musa, an agro-dealer representative in Karshi , FCT Nigeria

Agro-Dealers

Today, I am going to do a quick dive into what you should know about agro-dealership and areas where as young people we can tap into. First, you need to know who an agro dealer is:

An agro-dealer is someone, business organisation and sometimes cooperative society that engage in the sale and purchase of agricultural input. They usually have a valid registration certificate or license to carry out this activity as required by the law. They are usually also part of a union that governors activities of dealers

The agro dealer can either be a wholesaler or a retailer. The wholesaler buys directly from the manufacturer or sometimes an importer or suppler. They buy in large volume as sell to a retailer. The retailer is the one who buys from the wholesaler and is usually in direct contact with farmers and other consumers. The agro input sold fall into various types like fertilizers, pesticides, seeds and farm implements or equipment.

What Should You Know?
If you are thinking of venturing into agro dealership there are a couple of things you should know.
• There are different types of fertilisers, crop chemicals, farm implement and seed varieties. Thus it is important that you know what is needed and acceptable by your customers and provide them with the very best of quality inputs
• For those that will deal in fertilizers it is paramount you know about the nutrient value of different fertilizers and methods of conversion of nutrients to fertilizer material. It is also good to know the role of plant nutrients in crop production and what symptoms the crop show when the nutrient is deficient.
• An agro-dealer should also have knowledge of how to apply or use the inputs they sell. For example he/she should know the time to use an input, methods of application and quantity to be used
• A sound knowledge of marketing and sales is also important. As many products will come your way and you just have to sell and make profit.
• An agro dealer also needs to have knowledge of the local market and the demand of consumers. This would also involve understanding the farmers practice and noting where there are gaps so as to provide advice and inputs to meet their needs.
• It is a business so ensure to source input at good prices and quality.
Agro dealership requires both technical and business skills and if done properly can be profitable. The livelihood of many farmers also depends on what they get out of their farms. And the starting point for many is the kind of inputs they buy and how they use it. Thus been an agro dealer is a business of trust, integrity and the touching of lives when done properly. You will be on the path of helping farmers meet their needs and producing quality food and agricultural products. So when next you visit an agro dealer shop or you decide to open yours kindly have these in mind.

Watch Out For Part Two Of This Blog Post Where I We Would Learn More About The Functions Of An Agro dealer
RESEARCH SOURCE: MARKETING TRAINING MANUAL BY USAID NIGERIA AND IFDC

 

PHOTO CREDIT :Flicker/ GRM International